Refraction seismic survey along the planned tunel of the M85 motorway in the vicinity of Sopron

  Our company, the Geogold Kárpátia Ltd. has made refraction seismic survey during the summer of 2016. The aim of the campaine was to get petrophysical information along the planned tunel of the M85 motorway in the vicinity of Sopron. The total surveyed profile length was 700 m, along two lines, NW and SE.

To reach the planned penetration depth, as a source of the refraction seismic measurement we have used a special pirotechnical load, developed exclusively for this kind of works. For monitoring the produced signal we used 81 channels in case of the line NW, and 61 in case of the line SE. The distance between two geophones was always 5m, and between two sources, always 20 m.

To process the data and build a geophysical model, we used the tomographyc method with the help of the software Reflexw. The best way to present the results is to construct geophysical profiles, showing the velocities (longitudinal and trasversal) of the seismic waves along a given profile, and petrophysical parameters (Poisson constant and Young module) derived from the velocity data.

The distribution of the p wave velocity in case of the NW line is relatively homogenous, being between 400 - 1600 m/s. Considering the P wave velocity, the case of the SE line gives a totally different picture. The upper 15 - 20 m hav volues of 900 -1400 m/s, similarly to the NW line, which jumps to 2000 m/s in mid depth ajd reaches 3700 m/s at the bottom of the profile.

The transversal velocity profile along the NW and the SE line.

Seismic refraction survey along the planned tunnels of M0 motorway between the Nr. 11. and 10 Highways

  The Geogold Kárpátia Ltd. carried out seismic refraction survey along the planned tunnels of the M0 motorway, in the vicinity of Budapest District III., Üröm and Pilisborosjenő. The total surveyed profile length was 5,300m.

The survey was conducted in 2016 spring as a part of a comprehensive geotechnical survey including other geophysical explorations and drilling programme. The aim of the project was to create a lithological and geotechnical study along the planned tunnels from which the seismic survey delivers the P- and S-wave velocity distribution profiles and elastic parameters such as Young-modulus and Poisson's ratio.

The seismic survey was made with a 48 channels, telemetric system with 5m geophone distance. The desired investigation depth was 110m. Reaching this depth was impossible with hammer source. The vibroseis and explosives were also problematic because of the rough and inhabited terrain. Therefore, our company developed a new pyrotechnical method for seismic source which provided adequate seismic energy for reaching the prescribed investigation depth.

During the geophysical inversion process tomography and SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technic) algorithm was applied with the principle of curved raytraces. To reach the sufficient data density the seismic source distance were positioned at every 20m.

After the test survey it became clear that the generated S-waves decay very quick because of the unconsolidated and thick clay formations. Increasing the source energy is problematic because of the terrain. Therefore, the S-wave velocity profiles could be derived through additional measurements carried out on core samples by the Petrophysic Research Laboratory, University of Miskolc. In situ elastic properties of the subsurface rocks can be calculated with the P- and S-wave velocity distribution profiles.

Establishment of a long-distance drinking water supply startegy and monitoring system in the Érmellék – Valea Ierului Region

INTERREG HURO/1101/167/1.3.2. – Érmellék Consortium (2013-2015)

  ENEREA Nonprofit Kft. and Council of Bihor County have won support for the realisation of the project called “Establishment of a long-distance drinking water supply strategy and monitoring system in the Érmellék – Valea Ierului Region” in the frame of Hungary-Romania Cross Border Co-operation Program.

Objective of the project is the development of the long-term water supply strategy of Érmellék region in the area of the cross-border water body. The bottleneck of the strategy is the low level of information on the groundwater reserves in the region. The existing waterworks suffer from inadequate water quality, obsolete water supply structures and machinery, lack of supply in several settlements. Ongoing investments will solve some of the acute problems, but long term strategy is required with focus on the sustainable use of the water reserves available.

Our company, as a member of the Érmellék Consortium has participated in the implementation of both Hungarian and Romanian project task:

In Hungary, the protection plan of the groundwater resources of Álmosd - Bagamér and Kokad have been made. In Romania, the protection plan of the groundwater resources and also a long-distance drinking water strategy of Cherechiu, Viisoara, Adoni were developed. Apart from these, the project resulted in a common monitoring network and a GIS database covering the whole area. These results fit to the basic aims of the project, namely protecting the safe and good quality of water in the near bourder region.

More information on project’s webpage:

„Management of the World Heritage Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst"

HUSK/1101/221/0180" Karst Survey Consortium (2013-2014)

The joined application („Management of the world heritage caves in the Aggtelek Karst and the Slovakian Karst Regions”, HUSK/1101/221/0180) of the Directorate of Aggtelek Natoinal Park and the Štátna ochrana prírody Slovenskej republiky (Slovakian National Authority of Nature Conservation) have been supported in the framework of the Hungary-Slovakia Cross-Border Co-operation Program.

The diagnostical investigations were executed by the procurement-winner Karst Survey Consortium – members: GeoGold Kárpátia Ltd. ands KSZI Environmental Advisor Ltd.

The aim of the project was the delineation of the catchment areas (protection zone) of Cave Vass Imre and Cave Milada, with integrated methods (contaminant exploration, geophysical survey, tracer tests).

During the cross-border geophysical investigations 2000 points of Radio-Magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements and 80 point of VES (Vertical Electric Sounding) measurements (AB 400 m) were carried out. Geological, geoelectric, resisitivity-distribution and vulnerability maps were compiled based on the interpreted data. These maps helped to clarify the geological build up of the karstified area, its vulnerability and to define the main direction and intensity of fractures. The fractured epikarst block with secondary porosity was distinguished from the compact endokarst zone, and the thickness of the overlying layer was also identified.

The cross-border tracer test were aimed at (1) revealing the connections between the sinkholes and springs located in the study area, (2) defining the catchment area of the caves, (3) verifying the connection between them, (4) calculation of the hydraulic conductivity of the area. Tracer tests were carried out at six Hungarian and Slovakian sites, with 23 observation points in both countries, with more than 3000 water samples. The samples were analysed in situ with the GGUN-FL type fluorometer while the bacteriophag-investigation was carried out in the Institute of Animal Physiology, Kosice, (biologické laboratórium Ústavu fyziológie hospodárskych zvierat SAV).

Based on the archive and field data hydrodynamic and transport modelling was obtained for the delineation of the catchment area of Cave Vass Imre and Cave Milada. The contaminant transport was also simulated in the study area. The spring yields were predicted with long memory time series simulations in case of two springs at the Gömör-Torna Karst Region.

„Diagnostic assessment of Golop producing vulnerable water resource” KEOP-2.2.3/A/09-2010-009

Geogold-Geokomplex Consortium (2012-2014)

The Golop water resource supplies the commercial and industrial consumers of Abaújkér, Abaújszántó, Golop, Mád, Monok, Rátka, Tállya and since the spring of 2014 Szerencs city with drinking water (~11300 people).
The three wells supplying the settlements with drinking water are screened in the 20-40 m depth section, and the T3 well on more sections between 11-40 m depth in the Sarmatian fractured rhyolite tuff. Total depth of the wells is ranging between 45-50 m. The aquifer being fractured the recharge of the water is coming from precipitation which infiltrates and flows through the cracks to the discharge area. The recharge zone of the water resource, the SW heights of the Tokaj Mountains is in the vicinity of the waterworks. These heights are made up of volcanic rocks (rhyolite tuff, rhyolite lava, pyroxene andesite) that are overlain by only a thin layer of soil, which makes the water resource qualify as vulnerable to surface contaminants (VIFIR code: 4221 10).

Exploratory works

Diagnostic analysis of the water resource was started with archive data acquisition and information gathering and processing. For the development of the GIS database topographic GEOTIF sections transformed to EOV coordinates and orthophotos were used. The maps and information were processed and visualized in Arc GIS database, which was constantly expanded as the work progressed. During the geophysical investigations of the Golop water resource a total of 1200 RMT (Radio Magneto Telluric), and 108 VES (Vertical Electric Sounding) measurements with AB 400 m spacing distance were taken. In the work phase titled “Exploratory analysis of the contamination sources” the contamination exploratory bores (11) were drilled, soil and water samples were taken from drillholes and production wells, water and sediment samples (3-3) were taken from the Szerencs-creek and the stream coming from the andesite mines, and more water samples were taken from the residential wells in Golop and Tállya, and from springs (a total of 20 locations). The presence of contaminants exceeding or approaching the threshold limit value in the near-surface water samples is mostly natural, and to a lesser extent is the result of anthropogenic impact. The regional volcanic aquifer is responsible for the high Fe, Mn and As concentration in all the samples and the high sulphate ion concentrations in the samples from the NE lane of the water resource. 5 monitoring wells, 7 temporary piezometers were put down for water sampling, water level registration, pumping tests and long term monitoring of the water production. The isotope analysis showed tritium in the water of the production and observation wells except for well GP-6. In the two deepest observation wells the radiocarbon measurements indicated the presence of fresh water. During the long term pumping tests and interference tests 15 automatic water level and temperature registering devices were obtained and installed into the production and monitoring wells In the observation wells and monitoring wells the water chemical analysis showed that the iron, manganese, sulphate and arsenic concentrations above the limit is of natural origin, coming from the volcanic aquifer.

Applying the 123/1997 (VII. 18.) Government decree, in the case of the Golop working vulnerable water resource, the inner and outer hydrogeological A and B protection zones and the hydrogeological B protection area were determined, using the hydrodynamic model that was based on the results of the diagnostic investigations. The water production data used in determining the protection areas were used in the model after consulting with the Borsodvíz Plc. In the case of Golop, considering future developments, the model calculates with the amount of water to be protected (3800m3/day) determined in the operation permit. The hydrodynamic models were constructed in Feflow® 6 software, the input and output data pre- and post-processing was done in SURFER, ARCGIS, and AUTOCAD software. Based on the hydrodynamic calculations the inner (20 day travel time) protection zone and the outer (50 year travel time) hydrogeological B protection zone was determined, which must be established independently of vulnerability.

The Protection plan documentation contains all the diagnostic investigations done, and recommendations that were made for restrictions, actions and tasks for the owner and operator of the water resource, to be implemented in the protection area to protect the resorce.

Following the submission of the documentation, the Inspectorate issued the protection area order in which the protection areas were offcially announced.

„Diagnostic investigation of producing vulnerable water resource of Hatvan” KEOP–2.2.3/A/09–2011–0003 (2012–2014)

Basic parameters of the water resource

Five production wells of the Hatvan water resource owned by Hatvan Municipality and operated by the Heves County Waterworks Plc. are screened for Upper Pannonian and Pleistocene sand between 48,8 and 84,0 m at different depth intervals. The well depth varies between 74,0 and 94,0 m. These provide the inhabitants and industrial consumers of Hatvan with tap water This water resource is on the list of the producing vulnerable drinking water resources of VKKI, marked by water resource code 9098–30 and water resource VOR code AID412, respectively.

Research work during the diagnostic phase

Research Program on the condition and hydrological status of thermal water bodies in the Körös basin in Bihar-Bihor Euroregion (Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation) (HURO/0901/044/2.2.2)

KSZI-GEOGOLD Consortium (2011-2013)

In 2010 the Trans Tisza Water Directorate (TIVIZIG) (Debrecen) and the Council of Bihor County (Nagyvárad, RO) received financial support in the framework of “Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Program 2007-2013” for the “Research Program on the condition and hydrological status of thermal water bodies in the Körös basin in Bihar-Bihor Euroregion”. The leading partner of the project was the Trans Tisza Water Directorate. The public procurement tender for the execution of the research program was won by the KSzI – Geogold Consortium.

The project was aiming to gain better understanding of the transboundary hydrothermal resources, and with the new knowledge it wished to contribute to their sustainable use.

The research process:

During the course of the project the basic goals were met. The geological, hydrogeological, geothermal and geochemical data collected from the two sides of the border were refined and processed in a harmonized manner. These lead to a better understanding of the hydrogeothermal system of the (yet not officially delineated) transboundary thermal water body, and also provided a theoretical basis for the numerical modeling. Hydrodynamic and heat transport model was completed for the transboundary Upper-Pannonian thermal water body to assess its hydrogeological, hydraulic and hydrogeothermal conditions. The hydrological regions and territories of different characteristics were delineated and the causing factors affecting these were determined and verified by the mathematical processing of the chemical properties (cluster analysis). Action plan proposals were formulated for the preservation of the current good status of the water bodies. The project facilitates the cooperation between the users of the strategic thermal water reserves and the geothermal development in the transboundary region of Romania and Hungary. The project contributes to the foundation of a harmonized and sustainable thermal water utilization practice, which is of strategic importance for both countries. The publication of the results helps on both sides of the border to promote environmental thinking of the immediate users and the larger public as well.

„Diagnostic investigation of vulnerable water resource of Nagybörzsöny” KEOP–2.2.3/A/09–2010–0006


The utility water of the village is supplied by only one production well which is screened for Badenian andesite stratovolcanic formations between 75,5 and 237,5 m at nine depth intervals. The well depth is 225 m. The Bárókút spring catchment used to supply water to the village in the northeastern vicinity of the well, however due to the low discharge volume (40–90 l/min) and highly weather-dependent character it has been out of operation for many years.

The water resource is operated by the Danube Regional Waterworks Ltd. Being a fractured aquifer, the recharge comes principally from precipitation, the groundwater flows through the fractured medium to the discharge zone. Andesite and andesite–dacite stratovolcanic formations can be found close to the surface under relatively thin soil cover in the vicinity of the Waterworks and the recharge zone of the water resource (Börzsöny Hills), therefore the water resource is vulnerable to surface contamination (VIFIR code 12006–10).

Exploratory works

First of all, archive data collection and processing was carried out related to the water resource. Topographic GEOTIF sections transformed to EOV (Hungarian National Grid) system and orthophotos were used to prepare GIS database. Available maps and information were also processed and visualized in ArcGIS.

Altogether 170 RMT (radio–magnetotellurics), 23 VES (Vertical Electric Sounding) measurements were carried out during the geophysical prospecting of the water resource of Nagybörzsöny. Spatial distribution of loessy sand, pebbly sand and stratovolcanic formations was determined by the results of RMT surveys. Sandy gravel and sandy loess dominate at shallow depth close to the production well, however formations with higher resistivities, andesite and/or Rákos Limestone Formation sporadically appear with larger and smaller extent. This could be due to tectonic movements. The andesite–debris aquifer also can be found in the vicinity of the Bárókút spring.

As a result of VES measurements four geological cross–sections were compiled. Based on the anomalies it can be stated with high probability that a normal fault is situated north from the production well. It is also evidenced by the recently installed overflowing monitoring well. Point– and diffuse sources of contamination were surveyed at the location of previously delineated protection area during the contamination exploration. Contamination exploratory drillings (3) as well as soil and water sampling from boreholes, production well, Bárókút spring, Börzsöny stream, dug wells and springs (10) were also performed. The quality of the produced water and groundwater is satisfactory. The effect of predicted contamination sources is currently not detectable in the groundwater resource.

One exploratory well (filled up after the investigations) and two monitoring wells (one shallow [NP–1] and one overflowing deeper [NM–1]) were drilled as part of the monitoring system. The depths of observation wells are 10 and 150 m. Automatic water level and pressure measuring instruments were installed in the production well and the monitoring wells.

The results of interference assessment revealed that the continuous water withdrawal affected neither the near–surface porous aquifer nor the deeper fractured volcanic aquifer. The concentrations in the water samples do not exceed the treshold limits, quality of water in both wells is excellent.

Feflow® 6 software was applied for hydrodynamic modeling, the input and output operations, pre– and post–processing work were prepared in SURFER, ArcGIS and AutoCAD software.

According to the 123/1997. (VII. 18.) Government Regulation inner and outer hydrogeological „A” and hydrogeological „B” protection zone was determined as well as the hydrogeological „B” protection area for producing vulnerable water resource of Nagybörzsöny. Based on the hydrodynamic calculations the water resource is considered vulnerable, therefore not only the compulsory internal (20–days) protection area but also the 50–years hydrogeological „B” protection area is identified.

„Diagnostic investigation of Dunabogdány producing vulnerable water resource”

KSZI-GEOGOLD Consortium (2010-2012)

Basic parameters of the water resource

  In the area of the Dunabogdány bank-filtered water resource on the right shore of the Szentendre-Danube section, two production well groups 3.5 km from each other, provide drinking water to Dunabogdány and Szentgyörgypuszta (on the outskirts of Visegrád). Geophysical measurements were taken near the wells and between the 30 and 26 river km on the Szentendre Danube section.
  The waterworks on the Svábkert-dűlő (NW of the settlement) was established in 1968, and it operates with three wells. As the expansion of the waterworks was not possible on this site due to the closeness of the settlement, in 1975, the new horizontal well was built SE from the village at the Dunabogdány bay area. The production wells are situated 50-100 m from the mid-water shore line. The aquifer layer is a Pleistocene terrace sediment which is built up by sandy gravel and gravelly sand.
  The water quality in the driven well is adequate, the chemical composition refers to a dominantly Danube based water recharge. The nitrate levels are below 10 mg/l, but some micropollutants exceed the limit. This waterworks is at risk from the lack of sewage network in the resort area is. The radial well is at even more risk from the agricultural pollutants present in the area. The periodically increased nitrate content causes its water to only classify as „sufficient”.
  In the framework of the „Securing Future Water Resources” program the preliminary hydrogeological protection area was outlined, which contains the currently working radial well as well.

Research in the diagnostic phase

  The more important phases of the diagnostic research in the area of the Dunabogdány water resource were:
In the first phase the archive date was collected and organized and those field investigationswere done that help delineate the recharge area, and increase the reliability of the preliminary hydrodynamic models. These were the following:

In the second phase the monitoring system was planned, built and started up. To complete the complex monitoring system, three new monitoring wells were drilled (36/15/15 m deep), and eleven existing monitoring wells were renovated and authorized.   During the project water chemistry analysis was done on the production wells, some of the existing monitoring wells, and on the new monitoring wells. During the site measurements the contamination exploration drillholes, exploration drillholes, the Danube and public wells were sampled and analyzed. Twelve isotope hydrological water analysis were also done. Results of the water measurements were further analyzed by geomathematical methods to investigate the hydraulic connection between the Danube and the production wells.   Using the results of the diagnostic investigations the hydrodynamic model of the water resource was created (VISUAL MODFLOW), which was then used to determine the protection areas for the production. Complying with the 123/1997 (VII. 18.) Government statute the inner and outer hydrogeological „A” and hydrogeological „B” protection zone was determined for the Dunabogdány working vulnerable water resource.   The Protection plan documentation contains all the diagnostic investigations done, and recommendations that were made for restrictions, actions and tasks for the owner and operator of the water resource, to be implemented in the protection area to protect the resource   Following the submission of the documentation, the Inspectorate issued the protection area order in which the protection areas were formally announced.

Hungary–Romania Cross–border Co-operation Research Program on groundwater protection and hydrogeological status of Körös/Crisuri basin (2010–2011)

KSZI–Geogold Consortium

The Trans Tisza Environmental and Water Directorate (TIKÖVIZIG) and the Council of Bihor County received financial support for implementing the Romanian-Hungarian project under the Hungary-Romania Cross–border Cooperation Program 2007-2013. The leading partner and the Hungarian beneficiary was the TIKÖVIZIG and the Romanian one was the Council of Bihor County. The public procurement tender for the execution of the research program was won by the KSzI– Geogold Consortium.

The overall objective of the project is to gain general and fundamental knowledge and clarify the geological, hydrogeological, hydraulic, chemical and environmental issues related to the Romanian–Hungarian transboundary GWBs RO HU groundwater resource situated in the sub–basin of the Körös Rivers and Berettyó. This information is necessary for achieving and maintaining the good condition of the groundwater resource which belongs to the TIKÖVIZIG and Bihor County. Other aims of the study are: preparing an action plan which will contribute to the maintenance of the good condition of the groundwater resource, and also expanding the water management plan.

Objectives and related work flow:

Hydrogeological, hydraulic and geochemical investigation of the transboundary groundwater resources

Collecting and processing archive geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, geochemical, ecological, climatological and groundwater level fluctuation data

Processing of the results of spring and well surveys and observations

Geophysical prospecting and data processing (VES, GPR)
Hydrodynamic modeling
Cluster analysis
Dynamic factor analysis

Sensitivity assessment of the adjacent karst recharge area
Collecting and processing archive geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, speleological and precipitation data
Geophysical prospecting and data processing (RMT, VLF–R)
Field observation of sinkholes and dolines
Contaminant source exploration

Revealing the effective agents of water resource

Preparation of GIS database

Evaluation of the necessary arrangements for maintaining the good condition of the water resource

For further information and detailed description of the project visit the following

Environmental protection program of Gömör–Torna karst water resources

Hungary–Slovakia–Ukraine Cross–border Cooperation Program (2007–2008)

  The North Hungarian Environmental and Water Directorate (ÉKÖVIZIG) received financial support for implementing the Slovak–Hungarian project called „Environmental protection program of Gömör–Torna karst water resources” under the Hungary–Slovakia–Ukraine Cross–border Cooperation Program (INTERREG III A/Phare CBC Program).

  In Hungary, the project was fulfilled at one water resource (Tornaszentjakab) operated by Borsod–Bau 2000 Ltd., two water resources (Imola, Trizs) operated by ÉRV Plc. and seven water resources (Becskeháza, Kelemér, Gömörszőlős, Égerszög, Szőlősardó, Varbóc, Szin) operated by Cser–Komkra Ltd., respectively. In Slovakia, investigations were carried out at three water resources (Tornalja, Hanva, Lévárt) operated by VEOLIA B. B. Waterworks. The Hungarian beneficiary was the ÉKÖVIZIG and the Slovak one was the Municipality of Tornalja (Maesto Tornal’a).

  The following tasks were performed by our company as a subcontractor of KSZI Environmental Consultants Ltd. and Envirogold s.r.o. (Pri Slanej 17. 98201 Tornala):

Protection of subsurface drinking water resources in Bors (Romania, in the Framework of INTERREG III.

A / Phare CBC Program (2008-2009)

The local government of Bors village obtained financial support in the framework of Interreg IIIA/Phare CBC Program between Hungary – Romania, and Hungary – Serbia- Montenegro, to the realization of the Hungarian-Romanian project, named „Protection of vulnerable drinking water resources in Bors”.

The aim was to create the water resource protection and development plan of the region: Borş (Bors), Sântion (Biharszentjános), Santăul Mare (Nagyszántó), Santăul Mic (Kisszántó).

Our company, trusted by the KSZI Ltd., was involved in the following tasks:

Environmental program for the protection of the drinking water resources in Hajdú-Bihar County
at the border area Hungary-Romania INTERREG III/A program (2006-2007)

The objective of the project was to carry out a diagnostic investigation of the drinking water resources, and to execute the action plans in the following settlements at the border area: Bedő, Fülöp, Kismarja, Körösszakál, Körösszegapáti, Monostorpályi, Nyírábrány, Pocsaj-Esztár.

The leading partner at the project was the Trans Tisza Environmental and Water Directorate (TIKÖVIZIG) who after a public procurement delegated the KSzI environmental consultants Ltd. to realize the program.

As subcontractor of the KSZI Ltd. our company performed the following tasks: